In 2005 D2O was added to a very small amount (~10 milligrams) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two separate glass beakers. Positioned under each beaker was a hermetically sealed piece of X-ray film. After allowing exposure overnight, both films were developed and showed exposure to some type of radiation.
Our scientists then added more heavy water to the same beakers from the first experiment. In some of the experiments light from various sources was impinged on the D2O/CNT mixture and gamma/X-ray and neutron radiation detectors monitored any output from the apparatus.
The apparatus that was used had water shielding and thick polypropylene neutron moderators for safety purposes. The detectors never detected X-rays or gamma rays. High energy X-rays (about 20 MeV) could not penetrate the metal portion of the detector, much less the thick polypropylene moderator. Radiation of some type was, however, detected in these same beakers on the X-ray film in the first experiment. Irradiation of the beaker as it rotated produced measurable radiation. Several of the samples that were emitting energy were retained.
From this preliminary work it was determined that it was possible to generate radiation by combining deuterium in the form of “heavy water” and CNTs.
Because we had limited experience with nuclear systems and systems generating radiation it was decided that further research should be conducted at a facility having such experience.
In 2006 we contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to conduct further experiments. Again, a mixture of D2O and CNTs was subjected to various energy inputs to induce a fusion reaction. State of the art neutron detectors were used to determine if such a reaction took place.
The experiments produced mixed results. When a high frequency signal was imposed on the system the detectors recorded what appeared to be the production of neutrons from a nuclear reaction, but there was no constant output. Nor could the detectors discriminate between a cosmic ray or and impinging neutron.
In the final report for this research LLNL stated: “Of these [test results], the CNT sample event of October 25, 2006 at 16:14 provides evidence for a DD fusion source.” LLNL final Report P. 27.
While neutrons were detected and indicated some type of nuclear reaction may be taking place intermittently, this research made it clear that using neutrons as the metric to determine if a fusion reaction was taking place was not feasible. The reaction being induced in the experiment did not produce neutrons in large numbers or continuously.
An independent laboratory having expertise in vacuums systems and hydrogen chemistry was contracted for this next research. The experimental procedure was modified in several significant ways. First, instead of liquid heavy water (D2O), gaseous deuterium (D2) was used. It was felt that the use of mobile gas molecules would increase the probability of the deuterium either entering a CNT or interacting with its surface. Second, instead of trying to detect neutrons the system was designed to detect helium gas, a byproduct that demonstrates some type of nuclear reaction. Third, no external energy was input to the combination of CNTs and deuterium.
Prior to the experiments the entire vacuum system was “baked” to remove any gases adsorbed onto the interior surfaces of the apparatus. Particular care was made to remove any trace of helium that might be present from: 1) leak testing the vacuum system, 2) that might be present from any leaks or adsorption of the surrounding air (air contains 5.2ppm of helium), or 3) present in any of the materials introduced to the system (the CNTs and D2 gas). Any possible contamination of the system was found to be less than 10 ppm.
A series of four vacuum pumps, including an ion pump, were used in the system. They first evacuated the entire system of all gases, reactive and inert. Next the combination of deuterium gas and CNTs was introduced to the system and the pumps were again used to remove any gases that were generated in the system. The composition of the gases that were produced was determined using conventional detectors on the output of the pumps.
The combination of deuterium and CNTs produced 203ppm of helium inside the previously helium-free vacuum system, 300ppm in another.
The presence of helium in amounts hundreds of times more that was in the system before the reaction and 40 times the helium residually present in air, proves that some type of nuclear reaction occurred in the system when D2 gas and CNTs were combined.
The experimental setup and the data was shown to a nationally recognized university professor whose expertise is experimental measurements and techniques. He found the equipment, the procedures, the detection system, and the data analysis to be fundamentally sound.
In 2016 one of the samples of the 2005 Vermont experiment was still emitting energy with no input of external energy. A conventional radiation detector was used to measure energy being emitted from the 2005 sample.
The small size of the sample (micrograms) and the length of continuous energy production precludes it from being some type of chemical reaction. This is clear proof that some type of energy-producing, molecular level nuclear reaction is taking place in the 2005 sample.
The production of helium (4He) resulting from the combination of CNTs and deuterium has been observed by other researchers. See, “Visible-Light-Induced Water Splitting in Channels of Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110, 1571-75. (may be downloaded at the end of the website)
In that work water (that inherently contains small amounts of deuterium as “heavy water” (D2O)) was combined with carbon nanotubes and irradiated with visible light. Transmutation gases (e.g. helium) and energy were produced. No such effect was observed when the carbon was in the form of planar micrographite.
Fig. 2(b) of the article is a plot from a mass spectrograph showing the characteristic atomic masses of the gases produced when CNTs were irradiated in the presence of deuterium. Note the peak at AMU 4 for helium (4He).
The formation of chemical compounds like CH4 and CO2 from the elements initially present in the system (C, O, and H) is fundamentally different than creation of an atomic element (4He) not initially present. The creation of a new atomic element is transmutation and is indicative of some type of nuclear reaction.
How does your technology produce energy?
We believe that the electronic environment within carbon nanotubes negates the need for extreme pressures and temperatures ordinarily required to get deuterium atoms to fuse and facilitates the reaction:
2D + 2D → 4He + 23.8 MeV
Is your technology "cold fusion?"
No, our technology and "cold fusion" are two different species of what are known as LENR (low energy nuclear reactions). Ours is confinement of deuterium in carbon nanotubes with no external energy input and "cold fusion" is an electrochemical process involving the use of electrical energy to induce solid state reactions with rare metals.
Do nuclear physicists recognize LENR?
No, despite credible evidence from international research, they assert that low temperature fusion events cannot occur.
What credible evidence?
By 2009 so many researchers had produced results that could only be the result of fusion reactions the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency issued a report that summarized the research to date and provided an assessment of the feasibility and potential of the technology. The DIA report is entitled “Worldwide Research on Low-energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance” DIA-08-0911-003, dated November 13, 2009. It states that “scientist worldwide have reported anomalous excess heat production, as well as evidence of nuclear particles, and transmutation,” P. 2. It goes on to state: “This body of research has produced evidence that nuclear reactions may be occurring under conditions not previously believed to be possible,” P.3. (may be downloaded at the end of this website)
What is the significance of "transmutation?"
Nuclear transmutation occurs when one chemical element is changed into another one, deuterium to helium being one example. This occurs naturally during radioactive decay, but can occur from any number of nuclear processes that add or subtract protons from the atomic nucleus. This can occur during nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, or by bombarding materials with extremely high energy nuclear particles. No known chemical reaction can induce a transmutation reaction.
Can you cite some of the research?
A compilation is in the DIA report and includes:
6. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 261, 263,287, pp 187, 301,293.
7. DeChiaro, Louis, "Recent Progress in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, "briefing prepared by NAVSEA, Dahlgren,
for DDR&E, 28 August, 2009.
8. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al ., "Transmutation Reactions Induced by D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes
(Pd/CaO/Pd), "14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.
9. Hioki, Tatsumi, et al., "Influence of Deuterium Gas Penneation on Surface Elemental Change of Ion-Implanted Pd," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.
10. Celani, Francesco, et al., "Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated with Nano-Particles: Evidence for
Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington , DC, 10-15 August 2008.
11. "Exciting New Science; Potential Clean Energy," Abstracts, 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science and International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, I0-15 August 2008.
12 Mosier-Boss, et al. "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result of Pd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons," Naturwissenschaften, 96, 2009, 135-142.
13 Mosier-Boss, et al., Navy SPAWAR briefing, American Chemical Society annual meeting, March 2009.
14 "Exciting New Science; Potential Clean Energy," Abstracts, 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science and International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, I0-15 August 2008.
16. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al., "Transmutation Reactions Induced by D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes (Pd/CaO/Pd) 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.
17. Yamaguchi, Tatsuya, et al., "Investigation of Nuclear Transmutation Using Multilayered CaO/X/Pd Samples Under Deuterium Permeation," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15
18. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al., "Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation," Japan .Journal of Applied Physics, Vol 41, 2002, pp. 4642-4650.
19. Arata, Y., "Anomalous Effects in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes," Physics Letters A, 373, 2009, pp 3109-3112.
20. Violante, V. et al., "On the Correlation of PdD Alloy Material Properties with the Occurrence of Excess Power," briefing presented at 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.
21. Prelas, M.A., et al., "A review of Transmutation and Clustering in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri , May 2009.
22. Briefings presented at Navy SPAWAR San Diego, LENR meeting, 4-5 August, 2009.
23. Mosier-Boss, et al. "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result of Pd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons," Naturwissenschaften, 96, 2009, 135-142.
24. Mizuno, Tadahiko, "Neutron Emission Induced by Nuclear Reaction in Condensed Matter," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri, May 2009.
25. Zhang, et al., "On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System," Third International conference on Cold Fusion, 1992. Nagoya, Japan.
26. Biberian. Jean-Paul, "Unexplained Explosion During an Electrolysis Experiment in an Open Cell Mass flow Calorimeter," Journal of Condensed Matter, Nuclear Science, 2 (2009) pp. 1-6.
27. Zhang, et al., "On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium electrolytic System." Third International conference on Cold Fusion, 1992. Nagoya, Japan.
28. Lesin , et al.. "Ultrasonically-Excited Electrolysis Experiments at Energetic Technologies," Energetics Technologies, Omer, Israel. briefing presented at 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC. 10-15 August 2008
29. Jayaraman, K.S., "Cold Fusion is Hot Again," Nature India.2008. Published online 17 Jan 2008.
30. Mosier-Boss, et al., multiple briefings presented at Navy SPAWAR Pacific, August 4-5, 2009.
31. McKubre. Michael, "Studies of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect at SRI International," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri , May 2009.
32. Spzak, Stan, et al., "Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in the Pd Lattice," Naturwissenschaften., 92. 2005, 394-397.
33. Szpak, Stan, et al., "Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-Deposition," Thermochimica Acta, 410, 2004, 101-107.
34. Mosier-Boss, et al., "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result ofPd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons." Naturwissenschaften., 96. 2009, 135-142.
35 .Spzak, Stan, et al., "Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in the Pd Lattice," Naturwissenschaften., 92. 2005, 394-397.
37. Mosier-Boss, et al., Navy SPAWAR briefing, American Chemical Society annual meeting, March 2009.
38. McKubre, Michael, "Stud ies of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect at SRI International," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar: Excess Heat and Particle Tracks from Deuterium-Loaded Palladium, University of Missouri, 29 May 2009.
Why do nuclear physicists deny the validity of LENR?
LENR conflict with the current laws of conventional nuclear physics that require temperatures of hundreds of millions of degrees and pressures of hundreds of millions of pounds to induce nuclear fusion. The U.S. government funds hundreds of billions of dollars of research on conventional fusion technology but will not fund LENR research. In addition, the negative impact on the professional careers of those who first advanced "cold fusion" technology (Drs. Pons and Fleischmann) and the failures at Purdue (Y.E. Kim and others) is not lost on potential LENR advocates. There is no incentive for nuclear physicists to accept the validity LENR and a considerable professional downside.